Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery is a dental specialty, registered in the Federal Board of Dentistry, which aims diagnosis, surgical and adjuvant disease, trauma, injuries and acquired congenital abnormalities of the face and attachments, and craniofacial structures associated, according to the defined areas of competence.

Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery is the Medical Performance Area (recognized by the Federal Medicine Council and the Brazilian Medical Association), which deals with congenital deformities (including development) and acquired (most often by trauma or tumor diseases) that affect the craniofacial skeleton.

Actually, the above definitions often mingle. The first, being practiced by dental professionals who have had professional training, and the second by professionals who have had medical training. The formation of both, beyond the need of college degree, requires a specific graduate-level residence registered in Brazilian Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) and / or recognized expertise by the Vocational Board and / or Brazilian College or Association / Society related to the specialty.